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The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) in conjunction with ITEC SAS developed this project in order to carry out the probabilistic seismic risk assessment and prefeasibility design of construction and reinforcement projects of critical infrastructure components, for the purpose of achieving a significant reduction of Ecuador’s seismic risk. The project is composed of 2 phases. The first phase includes the development of the disaster risk profile of seismic events nationwide, composed by a seismic hazard model, an exposure model, and the catalog of vulnerability functions. The integration of these components lead to the quantification of the seismic risk at the national level, which was used to assess the expected impacts on the physical heritage, the possible economic losses and the effects on the population, and to define the critical infrastructure and establish viable options of risk mitigation. The second phase consists on the elaboration of a plan for the reduction of seismic risk in critical sectors of the country’s exposed infrastructure. This plan includes typical designs at the prefeasibility level of reinforcement works, and specific risk mitigation options by sectors. The dimension of the proposed risk mitigation options was evaluated in order to guide the mitigation plans that each sector should undertake, within the framework of a national risk mitigation plan. The plan propounds, among other possible results in the short and medium term, an estimation of the required investment in each of the phases, and the general recommendations for a successful implementation.